Sunday, November 18, 2012

Interpreting Different Types of Text by I Wayan Suryasa



Interpreting Different Types of Text
Some examples of different texts in terms of field
Law
Setting :
court → whisper, simultaneous, consecutive
conference → consecutive, simultaneous
Culture
Setting :
tour → liaison
conference → consecutive or simultaneous
Economy
Setting :
business meeting → liaison
conference → consecutive or simultaneous
Politic
Setting :
negotiation → liason
conference → consecutive or simultaneous
 Simultaneous Interpreting
·         Most effective for large meetings and conferences.
·         Requires specialised equipment: all contributions are relayed by microphone to the team of interpreters working from soundproof booths within the room – their interpretation is then transmitted back to the delegates through individual headsets.
·         At least two interpreters per language in a booth who each interpret for thirty minutes. When not interpreting, the other interpreter will stay in the booth and prepare for the next speech and help the other interpreter if necessary. 
·         A high level of education, training and preparation is required on the part of interpreters in order to carry out the skill of simultaneous interpreting.
Consecutive Interpreting
·         Most efficient at meetings and presentations with a small audience.
·         The interpreter needs to have excellent concentration, memory and understanding.
·         Samples of situations when consecutive interpreting is used are question and answer sessions, presentations, press conferences, speeches, court hearings, conference calls and interviews.
·         ​The interpreter takes notes while a participant speaks, and an interpretation is then rendered after the speaker has finished, or at appropriate intervals during the speech. 
·         No specialist technical equipment is required.
Whispering Interpreting
·         Whispering interpreting or ‘chuchotage’ is usually only used when one or two people do not understand the source language
·         This type of interpreting is useful for one-to-one or small meetings, walking visits, tours or during social events and dinners.
·         The interpreter is seated next to the meeting participants and simultaneously renders the interpretation in a low voice. 
·         No technical equipment is required. 
·         This form of interpreting would not be recommended if more than two people require interpretation as it would create too much noise and distraction. It would only be recommended for short meetings as the technique of whispering and speaking continuously in a low voice strains the vocal chords. 
·         As this is a form of simultaneous interpreting, this mode would also require a team of two interpreters.
Liaison Interpreting / Community Interpreting
·         This is also referred to as bilateral interpreting. 
·         This procedure is often used for informal situations, small business meetings, and it is also suitable for court interpreting. 
·         It involves interpreting on a more one-to-one basis whereby the interpreter will interpret, and ‘liaise’ between two languages to two or more people.
·         This type of interpreting is often used for interpreting in the community, at the request of doctors, lawyers, hospitals, Gardaí, social services and schools
·         It can also be used over the phone for telephone interpreting
·         This is for situations where workers need to be trained in health and safety work practices and other types of workplace training.
·         In some cases if part of the training is ‘on the go’ such as a tour around a construction site, a tour guide/Infoport system may be required, whereby a radio and participant headsets are used to enable the interpreter to talk to people on the move.
·         Our interpreters are experienced in interpreting for Health and Safety in the workplace, such as for Safe Pass Health and Safety Awareness Training, and Construction Skills training courses.
Political Text Example

Barack Obama created a political text messaging program that was instrumental in his 2008 campaign. When it was all finished, both a new marketing concept and a new presidency were launched.

Obama’s mobile marketing campaign appealed to the young adult market and made this important voting block feel more relevant to the political process. President Obama’s campaign sent large amounts of broadcast text messages to battleground states to remind people about voter registration and to create large crowds wherever the candidate was going to speak.

Genre of politic text
Politic speech, Politic news, politic campaign

Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used, texts are divided into several types. They are narrative, recount, descriptive, report, explanation, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, procedure, discussion, review, anecdote, spoof, and news item. These variations are known as GENRES.
NARRATIVE
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged
RECOUNT
Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms
REPORT
Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition
HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
PROCEDURE
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms
DISCUSSION
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner
REVIEW
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions
SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged
NEWS ITEM
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.



I Wayan Suryasa
1290161009

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